Volume 13 Number 1: April, 2018

Title: A Conceptual Study of Startup India – A Rejuvenation

Description: 

Author 1-Name: Bhawna Mittal, Research Scholar, C.C.S. University, Meerut. 
Author 1-Email: bhawnagarg1978@gmail.com
Author 2-Name: Dr. Shubhra Garg, Associate Professor, Commerce Department, MMH College, Ghaziabad.
Author 2-Email: bhawnagarg1978@gmail.com

Abstract: Scott Belsky once said that It's not about ideas, rather it's all about making ideas happen. It is a well-known fact that for a Startup to flourish only 20 per cent of the idea is required; rest 80 of the work is of execution. In the age of emerging Start Ups, when the competition is at its peak, it becomes difficult for companies to rise. Though India continues to harbor the third largest startup base in the world, the challenges range from cash flow to family support and to choosing right investors and so on. This research paper revolves around the concept of Start Up India Campaign, brought into existence by Shri Narender Modi, Prime Minister on 15th August 2015. The basic purpose of this paper is to throw light on the initiative taken by the government and to discuss the policies, plans, strategies and related schemes. We will also discuss about the roadblocks faced by our young entrepreneurs and the possible outcomes of the same.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Government Plans, Initiatives, Innovation, Startups, Strategies
Classification-JEL: L16, O14, O38

Citation: Mittal, Bhawna and Garg, Shubhra. A Conceptual Study of Startup India – A Rejuvenation. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2018, 13: 1. Pp. 1-14.
Paper Code: JCT-A18-BM-SG-1
DOI: http://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-1
Paper Code : JCT-A18-BM-SG-1
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-1
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-1.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p1-14.html
Http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:1-14

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Title: Impact of Small Scale Industries on Afghanistan's Economy

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Author 1-Name: Dr. Md. Shahnawaz Abdin, Assistant Professor, Department of Management, School of Management and Business Studies, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.
Author 1-Email: msabdin76@gmail.com
Author 2-Name: Imam Ali Sadid, Student, Department of Management, School of Management and Business Studies, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi.
Author 2-Email: msabdin76@gmail.com

Abstract: Industries and small scale industries in particular play a crucial role in the economic development of a country. This study which is based on secondary data was conducted to know the true impact of small scale industries on Afghanistan's economy. Throughout the history, the country has experienced many pages of downs and ups in terms of industrial revolution where many empires took actions in regard with industries and they have taken some steps in this regard and have been able to make Afghanistan a great and popular land in the region as being a land of industries. Especially in the era of Ghaznawian (10th – 12th centuries), the country witnessed great success in terms of industries e.g. in the areas of textiles, architectures, lithograph, tiles and so on. In the 18th century when the British Empire came to occupy Afghanistan, it lost many opportunities and the country took a backward turn. In the 19th century developmental steps were taken and industrial houses were made. Gradually they moved to the 20th century and some positive actions were taken, but due to political conflicts they again came to a halt. Till 2002 there were not much of development actions in terms of industries. As the study shows, it was only after 2002 that the government of Afghanistan made some special plans to develop industries. People started to work in small scale sectors like silk, felt, rug, wooden furniture etc. and create economic value for their country. Small scale industries contribute a lot to the economy of any country. It is a source of income and employment for people. The rural people are engaged with the sector and work independently. According to a survey, 70 per cent of the people consider the impact of the sector as positive, and more than 50 per cent say that the sector helps to eliminate poverty and bring economic development. Apart from all the positive impacts of small scale industries to the economy, the study shows that it faces many problems which need to be solved. The problems of lack of capital, infrastructure, organization, lack of skilled labor, security and strategic marketing are major impediments in the way of small scale industries in Afghanistan.
Classification-JEL: L16, L26, O25, O53
Keywords: Small Scale Industries, Economic Development, Handicrafts, Afghanistan

Citation: Abdin, Md. Shahnawaz and Sadid, Imam Ali. Impact of Small Scale Industries on Afghanistan’s Economy. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2018, 13: 1. Pp. 15-26.
Paper Code: JCT-A18-MSA-IAS-2
DOI: http://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-2
Web Address : http://www.jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-2.pdf
Archive: https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p15-26.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:15-26

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Title: An Analysis of India's Trade Intensity with UAE

Description: 

Author 1-Name: Dr. Krishn Awatar Goyal, Associate Professor, Department of Business Finance & Economics, FCMS, JNVU, Jodhpur
Author 1-Email: kagoyala@gmail.com
Author 2-Name: Abdul Vajid, UGC JRF (MANF), Research Scholar Department of Business Finance & Economics, FCMS, JNVU, Jodhpur
Author 2-Email: abdulvajid.bfe@jnvu.edu.in

Abstract: Today no nation in the world is fully self-reliant on its own resources. All the nations of the world are somehow interdependent on others, because every nation has its own natural resources, climate, geographical conditions and sources of energy. International interdependence is the main feature of today's global economy. Trading links between India and UAE have existed since ancient times. Indo-UAE trade has grown enormously in recent years. Many statistical trade indices are available to measure trade between two countries. One of them is the trade intensity index. The trade intensity index appears in two forms, the export intensity index and import intensity index. A few studies have done to explore intricacies of the trade relationship between the two countries. Under such scenario this paper investigates the major trends of bilateral trade and explores issues associated with trade intensity. An attempt is made here to examine the India's Trade Intensity with UAE for the period from 2006 to 2016. The paper also suggests measures to enhance trade intensity between India and UAE. Time series data have been used to measure Trade Intensity Index (TII). The findings of the study reveal that India's trade with UAE is more intense in comparison with its other trading partners.
Classification-JEL: F13, F15, N15, N55
Keywords: Trade Intensity, Import-Export, India UAE Trade, Foreign Trade

Citation: Goyal, Krishn Awatar and Vajid, abdul. An analysis of India’s Trade Intensity with UAE. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2018; 13:1. Pp. 27-31.
Paper Code : JCT-A18-KAG-AV-3
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-3
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-3.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p27-31.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:27-31

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Title: Impact of Startup Incubators in India

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. Bhavana Nahar, Assistant Professor, Shri Jain Diwakar College, Indore. 
Author 1-Email:  bhavananahar1977@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Dr. Snigdha Bhatt, Assistant Professor, Shri Jain Diwakar College, Indore
Author 2-Email:  bhavananahar1977@gmail.com

Abstract: India accounts for four percent of global GDP today. Startup India is the flagship initiative of the Government amidst fanfare and euphoria. The strategies of the Central Government takes into account the collective aspirations and enterprise of the risk taking Indian. Startup India is about challenging conventions and spurs a revolution of unique and emphatic business models. It is the precursor to India taking Centre stage in the new world .The present study tell us that Startup incubators are companies that assist new startups in their initial phase of development by providing various services. Startup incubators are essentially organisations that promote the speedy growth and success of startups, MSMEs, and early stage companies. The startup incubators provide a foray of services including capital, connections with angel investors, State Governments, economic coalitions, and others.
Classification-JEL: L16, O14, O38
Keywords: Startup, Business Incubators, Challenges, Initiatives, India Economy, MSME.

Citation: Nahar, Bhavana and Bhatt, Snigdha. Impact of Startup Incubators in India. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April, 2018; 13: 1. Pp: 32-36
Paper Code : JCT-A18-BN-SB-4
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-4
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-4.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p32-36.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:32-36

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Title: A Study on Financial Performance of District Co-operative Bank Ltd., Pauri Garhwal

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Author 1-Name: Dr. Priyanka Agarwal, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Government P.G. College, Kotdwara.
Author 1-Email: Priyanka.uk18@gmail.com

Abstract: In the modern oriented economy, finance is one of the basic foundations of all kinds of economics activities. Finance statements are prepared primary for decision making. This study mainly focuses on investigating the major factors that influence District Co-operative Bank financial performance. The Bank has been maintaining fair financial performance and further it can improve if the bank concentrates on with the overall service quality of their product and maintain proper fund. This paper is descriptive in nature, and data has been collected through secondary sources. The major findings of the study are that District Co-operative Bank Pauri Garhwal has been maintaining fair financial performance and further it can improve. The study also identified specific areas for District Co-operative Bank Pauri Garhwal to work on which can ensure sustainable growth for the bank. I try to show the differences between financial performances of District Co-operative Bank Pauri Garhwal over the last 4 year periods.
Keywords: Banking Sector, Financial Analysis, Co-operative Bank.
Classification-JEL: E21, E44, E59, G21

Citation: Agarwal, Priyanka. A Study on Financial Performance of District Co-Operative Bank Ltd., Pauri Garhwal. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13:1; Pp. 37-43.
Paper Code: JCT-A18-PA-5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-5
Web Address: http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-5.pdf
Archive: https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p37-43.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:37-43

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Title: Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on The Indian Economy

Description: 

Author-Name: M. Tamizharasan, Ph.D. Research Scholar, Department of Econometrics, School of Economics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625 021, Tamil Nadu.
Author-Email: mtamizha@gmail.com

Abstract: Foreign Direct Investment is an important instrument of economic development for developing countries. It provides a great drive for growth, after liberalization policy has been changed significant role in Indian economy. India is interested in increasing the FDI Inflows to earn more foreign exchange. This study investigate existence link between Foreign Direct Investment, Exports, Imports and Gross Domestic Product in the Indian economy. The objective of the study is to analyze growth and share of FDI, Gross Domestic Product, Exports and Imports and the relationship between FDI and Gross Domestic Product, Exports and Imports during the period from 1991 to 2015. The data are collected from Handbook of Statistics on Indian Economy 2016. This study analyse the index numbers, annual growth rate, averages, percentages, compound growth rate, simple linear regression and semi-log linear regression have been used.
Keywords: FDI, GDP, Exports, Imports and Indian Economy.
Classification-JEL: F14, F23, F43, F47 

Citation: Tamizharasan, M. Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Trade in the Indian Economy. Journal of Commerce and Trade April 2018; 13: 1; Pp. 44.49.
Paper Code: JCT-A18-MT-6
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-6
Web Address: http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-6.pdf
Archive: https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p44-49.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:44-49

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Title: Work Life Balance and Working Women

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Author 1-Name: Dr. Sanjay Keshaorao Katait, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Shri Shivaji Arts & Commerce College, Morshi Road, Amravati, Maharashtra, India.
Author 1-Email: skk2810@rediffmail.com
Author 2-Name: Dr. Kishor Phule, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Shri Shivaji Arts & Commerce College, Morshi Road, Amravati, Maharashtra, India.
Author 2-Email: kphule2@gmail.com

Abstract: The present role of working women has changed worldwide due to economic conditions and social demands. This has resulted in to increase in tremendous pressure to develop a career against their male counterparts while sustaining active engagement in personal life. The mounting work pressure is taking a toll on the workingwomen leaving them with less time for themselves. The increasing responsibilities on the personal front with the technological blessings like mobile phones, notepads, etc. that keeps work life integrated with personal life and creates imbalances, stress on personal and professional fronts. Such imbalance has a negative effect on personal life of working women which in turn have taken form of social hazards such as increasing number of divorces, infertility due to high stress levels. This affects the working women's physical, emotional and social wellbeing. Thus, achieving work life balance is a necessity for workingwomen to have a good quality of life. This research paper is an attempt to explore the tough challenges faced by working women in maintaining a balance between their personal and professional life.
Keywords: Prsonal Life, Professional Life. Quality Of Life, Stress, Work Life Balance, Working Women
Classification-JEL: B54, D63, E24

Citation: Katait, Sanjay Keshaorao and Phule, Kishore. Work Life Balance & Working Women. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 : 1; Pp. 50-57.
Paper Code: JCT-A18-SKK-KP-7
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-7
Web Address: http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-7.pdf
Archive: https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p50-57.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:50-57

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Title: A Comparative Study of Impact of NPA on Growth of Public and Co-operative Sector Banks in Amravati District

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Author 1-Name:  Dr. Yogesh S. Ingale, Project Research Fellow, Shri Shivaji Arts & Commerce College, Amravati.
Author 1-Email: yogesh85_ingale@rediffmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Dr. Arun G. Harne, Associate Professor, Smt Kesharbai Lahoti Mahavidyalya Amravati.
Author 2-Email: arun.harne11@gmail.com

Abstract: Indian banking sector of having a serious problem due non performing. The financial reforms have helped largely to clean NPA was around Rs. 52,000 crores in the year 2004. The earning capacity and profitability of the bank are highly affected due to this NPA is defined as an advance for which interest or repayment of principal or both remain outstanding for a period of more than two quarters. The level of NPA act as an indicator showing the bankers credit risks and efficiency of allocation of resource. The rising incidence of NPAs has been generally attributed to the domestic economic slowdown. It is believed that with economic growth slowing down and rate of interest going up sharply, corporate have been finding it difficult to repay loans, and it has added up to rising NPAs.
Keywords: Credit Loss, Doubtful Assets,Gross NPA, Net  NPA, Return on investment .
Classification-JEL: E59, G21, G28, G32.

Citation: Ingale, Yogesh S. and Harne, Arun G. A Comparative Study of Impact of NPA on Growth Public and Co-operative Sector Bank in Amravati District . Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 : 1; Pp.58-63. 
Paper Code: JCT-A18-YSI-AGH-8
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-8
Web Address: http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-8.pdf
Archive: https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p58-63.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:58-63

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Title: A Critical Study of Tax Assessment in Nagarpalika of Amravati District

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Author 1-Name:  Dr. Dinesh Prabhakarrao Bele, Shri Shivaji Art & Commerce College, Amravati.
Author 1-Email: dinesh10.bele@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Dr. Manoj M. Pimple, Assistant Professor, Mahatma Jyotiba Fule, Mahavidyaly, Bhatkuli, Amravati.
Author 2-Email: dinesh10.bele@gmail.com

Abstract: The income from Tax is considered asaimportant revenue. However, this income sources is important as per our Indian constitution in representative democracy, But the use of taxes income for development is not satisfactory. The action which Government takes on the basis of collected tax is not social beneficial. The process of spending money on various project is doubtful and also corrupted. So this tax assessment is made compulsory by low constitution as per 40 direction constituted in 1949. This study will be focus on the process of Tax collection and assessment in various Nagarpalikas of Amravati District. It is an honest attempt to find out the various method of tax assessment as well as implementation of collected money for social development.
Keywords: Education Tax, Fire extinguisher tax, Other special Taxes, Property Tax,Tree Tax, Sanitation Tax.
Classification-JEL: H21, H22, H27, H31, H71

Citation: Bele, Dinesh Prabhakarrao and Pimple, Manoj M. A Critical Study of Tax Assessment in Nagarpalika of Amravati District. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 : 1; Pp. 64-68.
Paper Code : A18-DPB-MMP-9
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-9
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-9.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p64-68.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:64-68

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Title: Emotional Intelligence As a Significant Tool in IT Industry

Description: 

Author-Name:  Bhavna Gupta, Research Scholar, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, D.N College, Meerut.
Author-Email: hrmbhavna@gmail.com

Abstract: Emotional Intelligence (EI) has attracted increasing attention and enjoyed a robust resurgence across a wide range of disciplines of psychology, education, and human resources over the last decade. The present decade has seen an ongoing interest of professionals and academicians toward the value of emotions at workplace. Tall claims have been made on one hand, while, on the other hand, the validity of such claims have been severely questioned.
Keywords: Education Emotional Intelligence, Self awareness, information technology
Classification-JEL: O33, O34

Citation: Gupta, Bhavna. Emotional Intelligence as a significant tool  in IT Industry. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 : 1; Pp. 69-75. Paper Code : JCT-A18-BG-10
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-10
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-10.pdf
Archive: https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p69-75.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:69-75

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Title: Consumer Behaviour towards Passengers’ Cars : A Study in Meerut Region

Description: 

Author-Name:  Mohit Saharan, Research Scholar Commere & Businees Administration, Meerut.
Author-Email: mohit.mba04@gmail.com
Author-Name:  Dr. R.K. Singhal, Former Head, Faculty of Commere & Businees Administration, Meerut.
Author-Email: singhaldrrakesh@gmail.com

Abstract: This paper explores the consumer behaviour towards passenger cars in Meerut region. The scope of the study is limited to certain important behavioural aspects like information search and evaluation, brand preference and brand loyalty and factors of motivation. Understanding the customer's satisfaction of the product will help the automobile manufacturer in developing their products to meet customer's needs and designing the proper marketing programs and strategy.
Keywords: Consumer Behaviour, Automobile Industry, Purchase decision, Brand choice.
Classification-JEL: L11, L22, P46

Citation: Saharan, Mohit and Singhal, R. K. Consumer Behaviour towards Passengers Cars : A Study in Meerut Region. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 : 1; Pp. 76-80.

Paper Code: JCT-A18-MS-RKS-11
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-11
Web Address: http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-11.pdf
Archive: https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p76-80.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:76-80

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Title: Passenger Transportation in Indian Railways : Facilities & Challenges

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Md. Sanauar Ali, Assistant Professor, PG Department of Commerce, R.D.S. College, Muzaffarpur.
Author-Email: sanauarali@gmail.com
Author-Name:  Prof. (Dr.) Ram Chandra Singh, Dean, Head Faculty of Commerce, R.D.S. College, Muzaffarpur.
Author-Email: 

Abstract: Indian Railway (IR) is the third largest railway network in the world with 7349 railway stations, 1,44,698 railway bridges, 11461 locomotives, 70937 passenger coaches, 2,77,987 freight cars and 67368 route kilometers. Today IR operatives 22550 trains each day, comprising 13329 passenger train and 9221 freight trains. It transports 3.04 million tones of freight traffic and 23 million passengers every day and 7.2 billion passengers per year. Railways an integral part of the transport network, play a crucial role in facilitating trade. The performance of this sector not only affects the global competitiveness of merchandise trade but also the performance of other service sectors such as tourism. Indian Railways has suffered from chronic and significant under investment as a result of which the network expansion and modernization have not happened at the requisite place leading to an erosion of the share in national freight and passenger traffic. It is management failure which failed to raise voice before the leadership/Govt. to the issue well in advance when Indian Railways major routes were becoming bottle neck for main movement rather major cause for slowing speed of trains due to abnormal delay enroot detention further increasing costs due to increased wagon turn round.
Keywords: Passenger facilities, fare structure, Capacity Constraints, Faster Trains, Challenges.
Classification-JEL: L62, L92

Citation: Ali, Md. Sanauar and Singh, Ram Chandra. Passenger Transportation in Indian Railways : Facilities & Challenges. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 : 1; Pp. 81-90.
Paper Code : JCT-A18-MSA-RCS-12
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-12
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-12.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p81-90.html
Http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2087:i:1:p:81-90

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Title: Income Pattern & Economic Status of Unorganised Sector Labour in District Meerut

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. Ravi Kumar Bansal, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, R.K.(PG) College, Shamli (U.P.)
Author 1-Email: 
Author 2-Name:  Dr. Charu Goel, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, R.K.(PG) College, Shamli (U.P.)
Author 2-Email: 

Abstract: In India a large number of laboursis employed in the unorganized sector. The unorganized or informal employment consists of casual and contributing family workers; self-employed persons in unorganized sector and private households and other employed in organized and unorganized enterprises that are not eligible either for paid, sick or annual leave or for any social security benefits given by the employer. As these workers are not so educated or may be illiterate therefore, they mostly do physical work instead of mental work, i.e. they were engaged with farming, selling various poducts or goods, do painting and whitewashing, make furniture, engaged in constructing buildings, do small handicraft work and last but not the least engaged with all body exertion jobs. They provide the much needed workforce in agriculture, which is generally needed for a specific time period of the year. Even as we see, large proportion of these workers are recruited in retailing business in showrooms, franchisee stores, general merchants stores as salesman who do the most of the work required in those shops, and stores.  
Keywords: Demonetization, GDP, Indian Economy, Black Money, Corruption.
Classification-JEL: J01, J81, J14, J31.

Citation: Bansal, Ravi Kumar and Goel, Charu. Income Pattern and Economic Status of Unorganised Sector Labour in District Meerut. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018;13 : 1; Pp. 91-98.
Paper Code: JCT-A18-RKB-CG-13
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-13
Web Address: http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-13.pdf
Archive: https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i191-98.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:91-98

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Title: Changing Dynamics of Indian Edible Oil Industry

Description: 

Author-Name:  Shikha Mittal, Associate Professor, Faculty of Commerce & Business Administration, D. N. College, Meerut.
Author-Email: shikhaicfai07@gmail.com

Abstract: Till 1990's the dominant edible oil produced and consumed in India were rapeseed-mustard and groundnut. The technological, economic and policy changes thereafter induced dynamics in consumer demand for food, including edible oils. The possible reason for these shifts are increased urbanization (changing lifestyles), increased awareness, availability of oils in packet form in varied quantities even in remote rural areas, change in relative prices of oils, and increased income levels of households. The results revealed that presently, the dominant edible oil consumed in India is palm oil 50 of the total consumption followed by the soybean and sunflower oil. Rice Bran Oil market in India is still at its nascent stage. In last five years there has been an increase of 20-30 per cent in RBO consumption. The groundnut oil and the mustard/rapeseed oil which was traditionally consumed by households, has been replaced by soybean oil, implying the need for appropriate changes in the production.
Keywords: dynamics, consumption pattern, edible oils
Classification-JEL: Q13, Q16, L66

Citation: Mittal, Shikha. Changing Dynamics of Indian Edible Oil Industry. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 : 1 ; Pp. 99-104.
Paper Code: JCT-A18-SM-14
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-14
Web Address: http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-14.pdf
Archive: https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p99-104.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:99-104

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Title: An Analysis of Financial Distress of Selected Public Sector Enterprises of India using Springate Score Model

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. Yagnesh Mohanlal Dalvadi, Professor, PG Department of Business Studies, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar.
Author 1-Email: yagneshroyal@spuvvn.edu
Author 2-Name:  Jyoti Badribhai Pandit, Research Scholar, PG Department of Business Studies, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar
Author 2-Email:  jyotipandit103@gmail.com

Abstract: Financially healthy company is able to pay its liablility within the time, but sometimes due to internal and external factors company incurred losses and unable to pay its debt. Hence, company becomes financially distressed, insolvent or bankrupt. In order to take a corrective steps prediction of financial distress is necessary so in this study the researcher attempts to analyse financial distress of selected public sector enterpreises of India by using Springate's score. 

Keywords: Financial Distress, Springate score, Central Public sector enterprises (CPSE), Solvent Company.
Classification-JEL: G32, L32, N45

Citation: Dalvadi, Yagnesh Mohanlal and Pandit, Jyoti Badribhai. An Analysis of Financial Distress of Selected Public Sector Enterprises of India Using Springate score Model. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 :1; Pp.105-110.
Paper Code: JCT-A18-YMD-JBP-15
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-15
Web Address: http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-15.pdf
Archive: https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p105-110.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:105-110

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Title: Parental Negligence on Narcissism and Aggression Among Young Adults

Description: 

Author-Name:  Kanishka Goel, Student of M. A. Counselling Psychology, AIPS, Amity University, UP, Noida.
Author-Email:  anandpublications@gmail.com
Author-Name:  Dr. Neelam Pandey, Assistant Professor, AIPS, Amity University, UP, Noida
Author-Email:  
 

Abstract: Negligence means when parents brought up their child in the sense that endangers the health and life of their child. Parents are not able to take necessary steps and make proper decisions for them while rising up their child.. These forms of negligence are leaving a child alone when he or she needs protection or parents are unable to provide food, clothing, not able to pay medical attention or education to a child, or placing the child in harmful or dangerous circumstances abusive or sexually predatory person including exposing the child to a violent. Narcissism basically is an inflated self-image and addiction to fantasy, where there is excessive interest in admiration of oneself and there is lot of admiration about one’s own physical appearance. It is one of the concepts in psychoanalytic theory, which was introduced in Sigmund Freud's essay On Narcissism. It is a social or cultural problem. Narcissism is one of the factors in trait theory and this approach studies human personality. Aggression is an overt behavior in which one often has harmful, social interaction with others and has intention of damaging or other unpleasant activities upon another individual. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation. It can cause physical and emotional harms to others. The aim of the study was to study parental negligence on narcissism and aggression among young adults. The tools selected were a checklist for measuring parental negligence, Narcissistic Personality Inventory and Buss- Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The study conducted was to understand parental negligence will impact narcissism and aggression. 
Classification-JEL: I21, J17
Keywords: Parental Negligence, Narcissism, Aggression.

Citation: Goel, Kanishka and Pandey, Neelam. Parental Negligence on Narcissism and Aggression Among Young Adults. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 : 1; Pp. 111-115.

Paper Code : JCT-A118-KG-NP-16
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-16
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-16.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p111-115.html 
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:111-115

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Title: An Analytical Study of Marketing Mix of Selected Brands of Vegetable Oil in Northern India

Description: 

Author 1-Name: Dr. Brijesh Kumar Agarwal, App. Research Guide, Mewar University Gangrar, Chittorgarh (Rajasthan).
Author 1-Email:  
Author 2-Name: Anamica Bansal, Research Scholar, Mewar University Gangrar, Gangrar, Chittorgarh, (Rajasthan).
Author 2-Email:  anamikabansal77@gmail.com

Abstract: Edible oil industry happens to be the key player in the economic development of the country. It is a sector that provides revenue not only through industry but also through the agricultural sector. The country is becoming more self depend in the production and consumption of edible oils. Innovative and scientific method of oil production is one of the basic aspects of oil industry. The continuous process of oil manufacturing through research and development making industry more viable the industries are using upgraded technology for making oils. The government is also taking good number of steps for better promotion of domestic oil industry. India is country where 25% of the population is suffering from cholesterol and heart related diseases. Maximum number of deaths is due to heart congestion and heart related attacks, which is duly recognized by oil industry by providing double and triple refined oil to protect the human heart. However there is a need for the government to take necessary steps to punish culprits of duplicate oil business. This will enhance the confidence of the people and the government to further boost the oil industry.
Keywords: ARIMA model, forecasting, export, tea, India.
Classification-JEL: C53, F17, F23.

Citation: Agarwal, Brijesh Kumar and Bansal, Anamica. An Analytical Study of Marketing Mix of Selected Brands of Vegetable Oil in Northern India. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 : 1; Pp. 116–120. 
Paper Code : JCT-A18-BKG-AB-17
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-17
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-17.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p116-120.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:116-120

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Title: A Study of Trends in Buying Pattern of Smartphones In India

Description: 

Author 1-Name: Sanchit Dagar, Research Scholar, School of Business Studies, Shobhit University, Meerut
Author 1-Email: sanchitdagar17@gmail.com
Author 2-Name: Dr. Asma Khan, Assistant Professor, School of Business Studies, Shobhit University, Meerut
Author 2-Email: asmakhan786@gmail.com

Abstract: The rapidly growing demand of Smartphone has created a buzz around the world. Nowadays, most of the consumers opt to have a Smartphone. The increasing innovation in mobile phone industries has brought this craze among the people on Smartphone. India has witnessed a dramatic growth in the number of mobile phone users in the recent past. Equally impressive has been the increase in internet access. Although mobiles allow us to stay connected, it is the convergence of internet access and smartphones that has resulted in tectonic shifts in consumer awareness, outlook and behaviour. Smartphone is configured by an operating system with advanced computing capability and connectivity. Generally Smartphone has high sensor big touch screens and high pixel cameras with lots of features and applications. Mostly people use applications for internet browsing, email, navigation, social media, listening music, reading news, games, finance, health and fitness, taking notes, calendar, weather forecast and lots of other things. These features and applications in Smartphone somehow have made people's life easier either in daily life, at work or for entertainment purpose. As a result, the market of Smartphone has been escalating every year with increasing innovations.
Keywords: Smartphones, Consumer awareness, Internet browsing, Features and Applications.
Classification-JEL: L11, L25, L96.

Citation: Dagar, Sanchit and Khan, Asma. A Study of Trends in Buying Pattern of Smartphones in India. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 : 1; Pp. 121-124.
Paper Code : JCT-A18-SD-AK-18
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-18
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-18.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p121-124.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:121-124

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Title: Green Accounting : A Desire, Desideratum and Demand of Today's Current Secnario

Description: 

Author 1-Name: Vertika Agarwal, Research Scholar, IP College, Bulandshahr
Author 1-Email:  vertikaagarwal29@gmail.com
Author 2-Name: Dr. V.K. Agarwal, Principal, IP College, Bulandshahr
Author 2-Email:  

Abstract: Green accounting attempts to detect and focus the resources consumed and the costs rendered by an industrial unit to the environment. For the sustainable development of mankind, a healthy environment is indispensable. Gradually, therefore, in many countries including India, environment matters are being given top most priority. Accounting and disclosure of environmental matters have been increasingly manifesting as an important dimension of corporate accounting and reporting practices. But, as conventional accounting deals with mainly non-living things, the formulation of valuation, and measurement and accounting techniques for incorporating environment-related matters in the corporate financial statement sometimes creates problems for the accountant. In the light of this situation, the conceptual analysis of the study is concerned with the rationale of environmental accounting on the economy and society as a whole, and focuses the failures of the traditional accounting system. A modest attempt has been made to throw light on the environmental awareness in developing nations like India and discuss the problems associated with the implementation of environmental accounting. The conceptual study also reflects that despite different anomalies, environmental accounting is becoming an increasing important aspect of the accounting agenda within the corporate sector in India. Lastly, a conclusion, along with recommendations, has been given to overcome the situation.
Keywords: Market, Investment Decisions, Capital Market.
Classification-JEL: M41, M48, R41.

Citation: Agarwal, Vertika and Agarwal, V. K. Green Accounting : A Desire, Desideratum and Demand of Today’s Current Scenario. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13: 1; Pp. 125-131.
Paper Code : JCT-A18-VA-VKA-19
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-19
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-19.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p125-131.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:125-131

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Title: A Study on Family Buying Behaviour with Reference to Health Drinks in Ghaziabad Market

Description: 

Author 1-Name: Dr. Neel Rai, Assistant Professor Institute of Technology & Science, Ghaziabad
Author 1-Email: neel_sadhna@yahoo.co.in
Author 2-Name: Prof. Dr. Rajeev Sijariya, Depit Director, Chhotu Ram Institute of Engineering and Technology, Meerut
Author 2-Email: rajeevsijariya@gmail.com

Abstract: The Purpose of this study is to investigate the family role and their buying role with reference to health drinks and also to find out whether TV advertisements are more effective than other modes of advertisement or not. It is to analyze that family take decision in buying health drinks or children take. T.V. advertisement as compared to other means are more effective than other modes of advertisements. Research Methodology: In this research the researcher applied the descriptive research & the sources of data was primary & secondary. The primary data was collected in the form of questionnaire and thus happen to be an original in character. Where as the secondary data was collected from internet and also through other various business magazines too. The researcher investigated in the form of his findings and conclusions that decisions in family are not taken by the family members, as some decision are also taken by the children of that family. So companies have targeted to focus both the categories in their ads to show their health drink ads on children TV channels or cartoon channels also other family channels too. Researcher also find that the low cost or price of health drinks cannot affect the buying behaviour of parents or family. As According to the result of the test TV advertisement are more effective than other modes of ads so companies have to pay more attention on TV advertisement trends.
Keywords: Health Drinks, Family buying behaviour, T.V. Advertisements.
Classification-JEL: R11, R31, R41.

Citation: Rai, Neel and Sijariya, Rajeev. A Study on Family Buying Behaviour with Reference to Health Drinks in Ghaziabad Market. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13:i1; Pp. 132-137.
Paper Code : JCT-A18-NR-RS-20
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-20
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-20.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p132-137.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:132-137

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Title: Relationship Between Working Capital and Profitability (A Case Study of Dr. Reddys Laboratories Limited)

Description: 

Author 1-Name: Dr. S. K. Rastogi, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Hindu College, Moradabad 244001 (UP)
Author 1-Email: mrsanjayrastogi@gmail.com
Author 2-Name: Durgesh Kumar, Research Scholar, Department of Commerce, Hindu College, Moradabad 244001 (UP).
Author 2-Email:  

Abstract: Maintaining the smooth and continuous flow of business is the challenging task for each organization, for this management needs the availability of each and every component of four M i.e. Man, Machine, Money and Material. Routine management of these four components is known as “Working Capital Management”. Working capital management is an important task for any business house as it maintains the uninterrupted flow. Decisions relating to the working capital are taken on each day based on the circumstances. Working capital is very important component of corporate finance because it directly affects the liquidity and profitability of the company. Working capital is the base for any organization especially for manufacturing organization. Management of DR REDDEYS LABORATORIES LIMITED has maintained a better relationship between Working Capital and Profitability during the study period of ten years 2007-08 to 2016-17. Researchers have used Financial Ratios for the present study as well as some very important statistical tools such as Karl Pearson Correlation, Spearman Rank Correlation, Regression Analysis, One Way Anova Test. Motaals Test is also used to determine the liquidity and profitability score.
Keywords: Working Capital, Profitability, ROCE, Liquidity Analysis and Motaals Comprehensive Test.
Classification-JEL: L 22, M 31, G 11,

Citation: Rastogi, S. K. and Kumar, Durgesh. Relationship Between Working Capital and Profitability (A Case Study of  Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Limited). Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13: 1; Pp. 138-147.
Paper Code : JCT-A18-SKR-DK-21
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-21
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-21.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p138-147.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:138-147

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Title: An Analytical Study of RBSK and Women Economic Empowerment in Bulandshahr District of Uttar Pradesh

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Sanjeev Kumar, Assistant Professor (Commerce), Government Girls Degree College, Chhibra Mau (Kannauj), UP
Author-Email:  

Abstract: Women Empowerment is a well known development term in recent era. There are little methods available to measure it and analyse it. Empowerment has intrinsic, extrinsic as well as instrumental value. Apart from this, empowerment can be economic, social or political. In the broader form, empowerment means to delegate the power of freedom in choice and action. Women empowerment delegates more authority and control to women over those resources and decisions that affect their life. Un-empowered women have very limited power to negotiate better for their life in many ways formal or informal, direct or indirect and legal or illegal. There is no direct impact of financial aid covered under the scheme with respect to the selected respondents. But the aspects and areas covered in the scheme do economically support rural women and for their empowerment. Overall the respondents are satisfied with the entire coverage and the facilities provided by Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram.
Keywords: Coverage, Funds, Allocation, Self Help groups, Anganwadi, Eomen Empowerment
Classification-JEL : D31, D63, J16, N15

Citation: Kumar, Sanjeev. An Analytical Study of RBSK and Women Economic Empowerment in Bulandshahr District of Uttar Pradesh, Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13: 1;Pp. 148-155.
Paper Code : JCT-A18-SK-22
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-22
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-22.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p148-155.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:148-155

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Title: A Study of Methods and Techniques to Manage the Occupational Stress Among the Bank Employees of Meerut Region

Description: 

Author 1-Name:  Dr. Himanshu Agarwal, Associate Professor, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, D.N. College, Meerut
Author 1-Email: drhimag@gmail.com
Author 2-Name:  Nitin Kumar Rastogi, Research Scholar, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, D.N. College, Meerut
Author 2-Email:  kavirastogisiyanabsr@gmail.com

Abstract: Stress on individuals ranges from personal day-to-day life to their organizational activities. Stress is the spice of life and the absence of stress makes life dull, monotonous and spiritless.  Workplace stress has been shown to have a detrimental effect on the health and wellbeing of employees, as well as a negative impact on workplace productivity and profits. Stress may cause within organizational context and outside. The job nature of banking employees is very tedious as it involves the direct customer interaction in all levels. There are several self-help remedies which are used to produce effective techniques for coping with stress. So it should be considered an efficient way of improving organizational profitability and reducing costs through lowering rates of absenteeism and turnover. Because employees spend roughly one third of their lives working in an organization, the sound mental health of employees is of paramount importance. The management takes necessary initiatives to overcome the disastrous effect of occupational stress. Managing stress will improve the chances of achieving sustainable productivity levels. Stress management should be included as one of the top agendas in modern day society.
Keywords: Stress, Banking employees, Workplace Stress, Productivity, Stress Management
Classification-JEL : G21, J24, J81.

Citation: Agarwal, Himanshu and Rastogi, Nitin Kumar. A study of Methods and Techniques to Manage the Occupational Stress Among the Bank Employees of Meerut Region, Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13: 1;Pp. 156-159.
Paper Code : JCT-A18-HA-NKR-23
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-23
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-23.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p156-159.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:156-159

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Title: Service Quality of Private Hospitals : The Patient’s Assessment (A Case Study of Meerut District)

Description: 

Author-Name:  Dr. Sapna Jain, Assistant Professor, Shri K.K. Jain (PG) College, Khatauli, Dist. Muzzaffarnagar
Author-Email: 

Abstract: The World is changing very fast. since, the inception of LPG, the demand for services has increased unexpectedly. Thus, service sector has become a rapidly growing area of the world economy and the health services organisations play an important role in such growth. In a decade or so, the rise and growth of private hospitals providing various health care services in India and in Meerut as well. With the opening of more than 200 medical care centres or hospitals. The health care market has grown and turn out to be a competitive affair. This study is exploratory by nature, which holds light of quality gaps in our health care sector, which can be worked upon to make the patients more comfortable and happy. However, some criteria like severity of illness, doctor's characteristics and treatment were not taken into consideration which could have an impact on the responses given.
Keywords: Hospitals, Service quality, SERVQUAL, Healthcare.
Classification-JEL : I11, I15, L33, L97.

Citation: Jain, Sapna. Service Quality of Private Hospitals : The Patient’s Assessment (A Case Study of Meerut District), Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13: 1;Pp. 
160-164.
Paper Code : JCT-A18-SJ-24
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-24
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-24.pdf
Archive : https://ideas.repec.org/a/jct/journl/v13y2018i1p160-164.html
http://EconPapers.repec.org/RePEc:jct:journl:v:13:y:2018:i:1:p:160-164

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Title: Biographien - Atal Bihari Vajpayee

Description: 

By: Dr. Himanshu Agarwal, Associate Professor, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, D.N. College, Meerut
Email: drhimag@gmail.com

Citation: Agarwal, Himanshu. Biography : Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 : 1; Pp. 165–166.
Paper Code : JCT-A18-Bio-25
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-25
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-25.pdf

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Title: Book Review - Principles of Management

Description: 

Reviewer: Dr. Anju Agarwal, Assistant Professor, (Commerce), Shri Kanwartara Science and Commerce College, Mandleshwar, Dist. Khargone, M.P.

Writers: Abhay Gupta and Deepti Singh Verma
Publisher: Devi Ahilya Prakashan, Indore: 2018-19
Pages : 419
Language : English
Price : Rs. 250, 
ISBN : 978-0-14-306301-8.

Citation: Agarwal, Anju. Book Review : Principles of Management, Journal of Commerce and Trade, April 2018; 13 : 1; Pp. 167–168.
Paper Code : JCT-A18-Book-26
DOI : https://doi.org/10.26703/JCT.v13i1-26
Web Address : http://jctindia.org/jct/april2018-v13i1-26.pdf

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